|only defined through the male side of the family; therefore, any daughters included in that family cannot receive inheritances. In matrilined systems of descent, the family is only defined through the female side of the family, so any sons in that family cannot receive inheritances. Patrilined- family is defined only through the male side of the family, daughters aren’t considered. In bilineal, the family is defined by both sides of the family, mom and dad’s side.|
|SNAF: Standard North American Family defined by sociologist Dorothy E. Smith.|
- two adults in a heterosexual relationship, with their biological children
- also defines roles/relationships in household
(man’s responsibility to money/providing source of income)
(woman’s responsibility to household, children, and husband)
|How does the contemporary structure of the family compare with structures of the family throughout history in the U.S.?||Definition|
|We see a lot of variations of the SNAF model, but generally, the US has and will continue to conform to the standard model of the family. There are multigenerational families (Grandma lives with the family, foster families, adopted families, single parent families), but we still generally follow the SNAF model.|
1950s SNAF is still used as model of united states families today
- yet statistics show, most adults in United States do not live in nuclear families
(1998 - only 26%... compared to 46% in 1976)
(56% of white American children are part of a traditional nuclear family)
- only 28% of African American families
- statistics show that 1950s model is not realistic model for today, lead to societal/institutional bias
However, cultural ideas of husbands and households have changed a lot. Both husbands and wives spend more time on childcare than in the past (49% of couples say they share childcare equally), and women are getting jobs more often as well.
The idea of SNAF first appeared in the early 19th century and came from the middle to upper class technology. SNAF was then transferred to the 20th century, and everyone thought it was normal.
|What is significant about the time period during the 1950s for notions of the family in the U.S.? Why should it not be considered “traditional”?||Definition|
|Superficial sameness of the family was achieved in the 1950s through censorship and dishonesty in the government. However, there was a rise in unwed childbirth and unhappy marriages during this time as well (women were seen as property, and domestic violence wasn’t taken seriously).|
Consider economic boom of 1950s after WWII
- one wage-earner had ability to provide for entire family
- concept of SNAF existed before, but economic stability extends opportunity to more families
But opportunity to rise to middle class still not available to all (many children still not living in SNAFs)
- but institutions/government programs perpetuate/aid growth of SNAF
- programs only aid certain kinds of families
- so, becomes model on basis of coercion and discrimination - should not be considered traditional
Only 60% of Americans spent their entire childhoods in a traditional family.
The stability of these 1950s families did not guarantee good outcomes for their members
Almost a third of American children lived in poverty during the 1950s
Divorce rates dropped, fertility soared, the gap between men’s and women’s jobs widened, making women more dependant on marriages.
Wife battering rates were low, but that was because wife-beating was seldom counted as a crime
|What is the divorce rate and how is it typically discussed? What data should be actually used?||Definition|
|- The divorce rate is how we measure how many marriages end in divorce each year. |
- But why would we measure marriages in a year against divorces in a year? You can’t compare them because it doesn’t take into consideration how many couples were married before the year you are measuring.
- We should use data not on a year-by-year basis, but on how many people have been divorced during their lifetime.
|What is the technocratic model of childbirth?||Definition|
|- Birth in the U.S. increasingly conducted under a set of beliefs, a “paradigm”.|
- “paradigm” meaning both a conceptual model of reality and a template for reality.
-(delineated and enacted through the rituals of hospital birth, and to consider its sociocultural and folkloristic implications.)
|How is this “rite of passage” conducted in the U.S.?||Definition|
|- Rite of passage is based off of a society’s rituals. |
- In the United States, the rituals have to do with the authority of the hospitals (during childbirth) and the use of technology and science. Rite of passage is being replaced by the use of technology & science (because of the use of drugs, scheduling, doctor selections, the actual placement on a hospital bed is devaluing a woman’s body)
|What is the most common surgery for women in the U.S.?||Definition|
Second most common surgery for women is a hysterectomy.
|What is a homunculus, and how does this concept relate to the history of notions of birth?||Definition|
|-an artificially made dwarf, supposedly produced in a flask by an alchemist.|
-a fully formed, miniature human body believed, according to some medical theories of the 16th and 17th centuries, to be contained in the spermatozoon.
- Any representation of a human being/human body is in the miniature form of a sperm/egg
- all human species are found in the male body and the women carry them
- how science defines male or female
|Where does the U.S. stand in comparison with other nations across the globe for paid parental leave?||Definition|
|US has no paid maternity leave.|
Sweden and Norway: “Use it or lose it” policy
- For each child parents may divide up a year of paid leave
- Mothers can use only 11 months, fathers get 1 month paid leave, if they don’t use it they lose that paid leave
|How does the U.S. compare with France and Switzerland in terms of child care?||Definition|
|- In France every child between 3 and 6 years old is guaranteed placement in daycare, almost 100% of parents enroll their children in daycare at age 3.|
- These daycares are considered early education programs and no political party opposes them.
- France targets entire areas as well, so the poor children aren’t singled out. This is in opposition to the United States “Free Lunch” programs
- France GDP = $1.8 Trillion
- United States GDP = $14 Trillion
- World GDP = $58 Trillion (So the U.S. is roughly 25% of the World’s GDP)
- GDP = Gross Domestic Product
- unstructured curriculum gives children more time to “hang out”
- “Listening to the children” is one of the government’s five principles
- Emphasize “looking at everything through the child’s perspective”
Danish system is only offered to children with working parents, because it is used to aid parents and not educate children
|What is the U.S. child poverty rate? How does this compare on the global scene with other nation states?||Definition|
|- U.S. Child poverty rate: Nearly 15 million |
- 21% of children live in low-income families (below federal poverty rates), compared to 14% in Australia
- United States has the highest rate of child poverty out of industrialized nations
|What is the infant mortality rate for the U.S.?||Definition|
|-3.3 million annual newborn deaths|
-5.98 per every 1,000 live births
Infant mortality and prenatal care: US is doing bad.
|What is the second shift?||Definition|
|Having to do unpaid work when getting home from a paid job (ex: parenting, cleaning, cooking)|
|Does the hours worked or the amount of money earned by men influence their willingness to contribute to the second shift? What does?||Definition|
|No, a man’s willingness to contribute to the second shift is based on whether the woman has a pressing job as well as her income and amount of hours worked.|
|How much time are husbands and wives spending with their children? Has it grown or decreased since 1965?||Definition|
|There has been a decrease in the number of children per family and an increase in individual attention. Mothers spend twice as much time with their children than they did in the 1920’s |
It has grown since 1965.
|How much extra work a year can be attributed to the second shift?||Definition|
|What is cultural capital?||Definition|
|Wealth of knowledge and ideas; which legitimates status of power |
Ex.) Households that may have a lot of books in their homes will have access to excess knowledge than households without books
- All this cultural capital is institutionalized, taught and socialized in the home
|Is there a motherhood penalty for potential job seekers?||Definition|
|Yes, people feel they should not take a job that requires a lot of time if they are planning on having children because it is then not easy to find another job and get back in the work force if they wanted to.|
|How did Thomas Jefferson contribute to theories of race in the United States?||Definition|
|He said that white people were more intelligent; it can be argued that he was the first person to truly articulate the idea of race in the United States. Blacks are inferior to whites in both body and mind. Jefferson was the first to say that science would be able to find the answer behind what made blacks different from whites.|
|How did the concept of liberty contribute to the ideology of white supremacy?||Definition|
|It’s ironic because according to Jefferson, “all men are created equal.” We promoted a society of liberty, freedom, and democracy, yet we owned slaves and exploited those that were not white, and we tried to justify this by simply saying that the idea of all men being equal only applies to certain people.|
|What about the expansionist practices of the United States during the 19th century and the Native Americans and Mexican Americans already settled in these areas? How did science fit in?||Definition|
|- The Louisiana Purchase expanded the country, but many Native American peoples were already there. The Cherokees are considered to be the success of the civilization policy. Many were farmers, owned slaves, and learned “white religion.”|
- In 1827, an auction giving whites the right to Cherokee land was held, and the Indian Removal Act was passed in 1830. After the original practice of the civilization policy, the Cherokees were now being told to embrace their culture. The Trail of Tears forced 70,000 Native Americans into the west by 1840, and it killed ¼ of their population.
- The US then annexed ⅓ of Mexico’s land in 1848, claiming that “the west belongs to white Americans.”
- At the time, there was scientific speculation that there were many different types of races, not just the human race. White Americans were “scientifically proven” to be the smartest race on Earth in the eyes of white Americans, followed by the English, the French, other Europeans, and then blacks at the bottom of the list. Yet the Englishmen discovered that they were smarter than Americans and then the French, while the French discovered that they were smarter than both. This proof was clearly flawed, as results were biased towards one country in every study.
|What is meant by the statement that race is based on your cultural lens?||Definition|
|Race is defined by each person, socially. Physical differences don’t make race and it is not scientifically defined.|
|What is important about the Supreme Court decisions regarding: Takao Ozawa (October/November 1922)? Bhagat Singh Thind (January/February 1923)?||Definition|
|Ozawa- supreme court ruled that only caucasians are white. according to science, he is mongolian.|
Thind- supreme court says: it doesn’t matter what science says. white= what the common white man says it is. Thind may be caucasian, but he is not white.
Important, as the supreme court contradicted itself.
|How does the concept of whiteness relate to New Deal policies? How does this process challenge the so-called ‘openness’ (i.e. ‘pulling yourself up by your bootstraps’) aspect of the economic order in the U.S.?||Definition|
|Race mattered in housing. Blacks could decrease values of neighborhoods. All minority communities were created. Integrated neighborhoods were financially unstable.|
|An institutionalized way of putting value to neighborhoods. Banks would not lend or invest money to areas marked due to the fact that they may be financially risky because they were integrated neighborhoods or neighborhoods of minority populations.|
|How does this (redlining) relate to housing opportunities for U.S. residents?||Definition|
|Redlining caused... |
most mortgages to go to suburban America
integrated neighborhoods were unstable; FHA ratings would drop
there was $100,000 in the housing market but only
|What did DuBois mean by double consciousness and seeing oneself through a veil?||Definition|
|- Double consciousness comes from African Americans viewing themselves, individually and as a group, through the eyes of the society they live in.|
- Double consciousness: Viewing oneself through the eyes of others
- This produces what Du Bois calls a "twoness, - an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body
|Human trafficking victims – who are they? Are popular sporting events involved? How?||Definition|
|- 80% of human trafficking victims are women and children|
- Main types of human trafficking: Involuntary servitude, debt bondage, involuntary domestic servitude, factories, hotels
- Popular sporting events are involved, a lot of sex trafficking happens during big games around the perimeter of the stadium.
|Which U.S. state does not currently have any legislation regarding human trafficking?||Definition|
|What is Peggy McIntosh trying to argue in her article?||Definition|
|Those who benefit from existing social inequalities are usually oblivious to the privileges they enjoy that are not available to others.|
|How is unearned privilege unrecognized?||Definition|
|Partly because of culture- we’re carefully taught and raised not to recognize unearned privilege, so we don’t realize how privileged we are. We are taught to think that our lives are morally neutral, normative, average, and ideal- that we work to benefit others.|
|What is white male privilege?||Definition|
|- White privilege is like an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions.|
- (everyday things in life white males take for granted)
- White Privilege: advantages that white people accrue from society as on the disadvantages people of color experience
|What is meant by aspects of unearned advantages that derive chiefly from social class, economic class, race, religion, region, sex, or ethnic identity are both distinct and interlocking?||Definition|
|All of these factors together determine the privileges one gets, but each is its own distinct factor.|
|Why does Peggy McIntosh suggest we need to redesign social systems?||Definition|
|I think we first need to make white males aware of the undeserved privileges they receive. The first step is to make the inequality known then everyone has to pitch in to make the system more fair.|
|What is eugenics and how did this movement perform boundary maintenance in the early 20th century in the U.S.?||Definition|
|Eugenics is the role of scientists and biologists in the history of US society. They looked at science to determine the hierarchy of society. This way of thinking resulted in sterilization laws in populations with physical ailments and handicaps in order to produce a “superior” population. This also included criminals and African American women. The biologists also went to Congress about immigration and asked them to keep some people from immigrating because they would “tarnish the population.”|
|How is gender an influential factor in the medical market for ‘sellable’ egg and sperm donors?||Definition|
|Gender is a very influential factor in sellable egg and sperm donors. For males looking to donate sperm, the requirements include a degree from a 4 year university, responsibility, reliability, high sperm count, they must be tall, have a good personality, etc. For women looking to donate eggs, the requirements include education, physical attractiveness, and more social characteristics/physical information.|
The women seemed to donate more out of an altruistic desire, while the men saw it more as a job.
Women were more likely to be chosen to donate based on their physical appearances, while men were chosen to donate based on their level of education and other traits.
|How can we measure the existence of a class-based society in the U.S.? What models were discussed in class?||Definition|
|Income ( the amount of resources one has) and wealth (how income is distributed in the nation-state) |
- Marx classified society as proletariat and bourgeoisie.
- Look at income, wealth, and resources and how they are distributed.
-Power Elite Model
1) Formal Similarity (bureaucratically arranged)
2) Ramifications (decisions have large significant aspects on society)
3) Coined Primary Interest (one best serves another)
4) Administrative Backing (largely make these influences on society)
-Marx Model ( Class Structure of Society)
- Capitalists (Bourgeoisie, those who own the means of production)
- Workers (Proletariet, those who work for the capitalists)
- Inconsequential Others (beggers, etc.)
|How is wealth and income distributed in the U.S.?||Definition|
|- The top 20% are getting 51% of our income|
- The next 20% are getting 22% of our income
- The next 20% are getting 15% our our income
- The bottom 40% share 12% of the income
- The top 10% of the population has 70% of our wealth
- The bottom 90% have access to the other 30% of our wealth
- The top 1% has 33% of our wealth
|What are the proletariat and the bourgeoisie?||Definition|
|- The proletariat are the workers/lower class, those who work for the capitalists. They don’t own anything other than their labor, have very limited power, and are subjected to the decisions of the bourgeoisie.|
- The bourgeoisie are those who own the means of production-- the middle and upper classes.
|What is the ‘bourgeoisie mode of production’ and how does this connect with the ‘instruments of production’ within Marx’s theory?||Definition|
|- The bourgeoisie mode of production is a type of production that pushes itself to reinvent or annihilate itself by looking at new modes of production. This type of production will improve parts of the economy but over time the economy will collapse on itself. The whole process is given by the need or want of new products.|
|What is the proletariatization of society?||Definition|
|The proletariat will grow in absolute numbers as the relations of society continually change throughout the process. The proletariatization of society will ultimately serve as the catalyst for gaining critical consciousness amongst the proletariat. This is when the revolt will occur; for Marx, this is the only revolutionary group.|
|When will class antagonism end?||Definition|
|Never! Whenever the working class eventually rises above, someone lower than them will eventually rise up against them as well, and the cycle will repeat itself.|
|What is the power elite? How is this model different from Marx?||Definition|
|The power elite consists of interwoven interests of the leaders of the military, corporate (economic), and political elements of society and suggests that the ordinary citizen is a relatively powerless subject of manipulation by those entities.|
|How did uneven economic growth in primarily poor and black communities contribute to disparities in environmental quality in these communities?||Definition|
|Areas of uneven economic growth, especially in poor black communities are where most of the nation's toxic waste compounds are located. Resulting in poor environmental quality due to the toxins being released into the environment.|
|What type of criminal offense increased the most during the decade between 1985 and 1995 in federal and state prisons?||Definition|
|Drug use decreased so anti-drug policies became harsh when views about drugs and their usage were declining based on societal views; more drug arrests for nonwhites; 1) more activities (drug dealing) occur on streets in certain neighborhoods, 2) undercover cops easily penetrate networks in minority neighborhoods|
|What are the common excuses for high crime rates and why are they not accurate according to Reiman and Leighton?||Definition|
|We are too soft=|
Violent crime rates have declined since 1992, but crime rates are still very high. The US has one of the highest incarceration rates in the world, so we are not too soft in terms of punishment; something else is to blame.
Industrialization, urbanization, and other characteristics of modernization do not adequately explain the high crime rates in industrialized societies like the US. Other industrialized countries have not experienced similar trends in prison population growth.
It is true that youth 25 years and younger comprise 44% of the US murderers, and 75% are responsible for street crimes. However, crime rates have grown at rates without a corresponding correlation with the growth of the youth percentage of the population.
|What are the known sources of crime?||Definition|
|Known sources of crime=Poverty and inequality, prison, guns, and drugs.|
Pyrrhic defeat theory= argues that the failure of the criminal justice system yields such benefits to those in positions of power that it amounts to a success.
|What is the carnival mirror and the social reality of crime?||Definition|
|The criminal justice system is like a mirror reflecting reality; a perfect mirror will accurately and consistently reflect an image of reality, but the image that we see when we look into the mirror of our criminal justice system is distorted. The criminal justice system doesn’t accurately show what is truly harmful and what is crime in the US.|
The social reality of crime= the dominant image of crime and the threats that these acts indicate are NOT the most threatening to our wellbeing. In this way, the criminal justice system has a part in creating the image of the social reality that we are presented with. Medical malpractice, occupational injuries, and disease are all activities that may pose the same or even greater threats to our chances of being killed than by aggravated assault or homicide.
|How is the public’s notion of crime created?||Definition|
|Decisions of the legislators (definitions of criminal law)|
Decisions of police officers and prosecutors (arrests and charges)
Decisions of judges and juries (convictions)
Decisions of sentencing judges (length and severity of sentences)
What the media identifies as a “crime” vs. an “accident”
ALL of these decisions together (criminal justice policy and media representation)
The decisions present an image of the most dangerous activities that are causing harm to society are coming from the poor, and popular media representations reinforce this image.
|What are the defenders of the legal order for objections?||Definition|
|Purposeful action=more evil (intentionality),|
Direct harm from another individual is more terrifying than impersonal or indirect harm,
Illegitimate and self motivated actions are more evil than consequence of socially acceptable behaviors (profit seeking behavior--productive activity),
Typical crimes are imposed on their victims (occupational harm is a risk assumed by the employee).
|How are Americans really murdered and what are the objective social harms facing society according to Reiman and Leighton?||Definition|
|Medical malpractice, occupational injuries, disease, and unnecessary surgery are all activities that may pose the same or even greater threats to our chance of being killed than by aggravated assault or homicide. Some other examples of social harms include pollution, cigarette smoking, food additives, poverty, and unpaid medical bills.|
|What is significant about the Triangle Shirtwaist Co and the Imperial Food Products, Inc?||Definition|
|Many people were killed, but the companies were acquitted and didn’t have to go to jail even though they hurt and killed a lot of people. Both companies had similar, obvious problems... Triangle Shirtwaist Co. employees died in the fire because the doors remained locked, the fire escape collapsed, no sprinkler system existed, and there were no fire drills. Imperial Food Products employees died in the fire because the doors were also locked, there was no sprinkler system, and fire alarms were non-existent.|
|How did North Carolina’s self-description of fostering an ‘attractive business environment’ contribute to the state’s economic growth?||Definition|
|A good business environment includes low business taxes, cheap land, cheap labor, and minimum business regulations. This lead to economic growth in urban areas where skilled laborers lived but in the black belt regions the unskilled laborers were separated and forced to work in “dirty industries”|
|What is significant about North Carolina’s OSHA program?||Definition|
|In regards to the Imperial Food Products Inc. fire, USDA was in violation of OSHA regulations. However, the plant was never officially inspected by OSHA during its 11-year existence. It’s believed that had the plant been investigated at any point prior to the fire, it may have never happened. |
North Carolina operates its own OSHA program to provide low cost worker safety and health training to employees.
|What are Reiman and Leighton’s suggestions for seriously reducing crime in the U.S. in regards to poverty, prisons, guns and drugs?||Definition|
|Not enough to think about the wealthy controlling our society; we need to think about the entire population. The criminal justice system has a sense of authority to it, and every participant needs to participate in the system, and that is how the criminal justice system exists. Exploitation must be believed as minimally existent and not creating more harms in society, and known sources of crime need to be reconstructed in our society.|
If we want to stop crime, we need to have those objectively harmful actions treated, we need to help those in need and not punish them, and we need to treat drug addicts as medical patients and legalize illicit drugs. Punish the wealthy more for white collar crimes and the poor less for crimes that don’t harm anyone. Make it harder to obtain guns.
|What is the pyrrhic defeat theory?||Definition|
|Pyrrhic defeat theory= argues that the failure of the criminal justice system yields such benefits to those in positions of power that it amounts to a success.|
|How is poverty experienced in the U.S.?||Definition|
|Poverty is a source of crime. The gap between the rich and the poor is worsening. Poverty groups have unemployment rates approaching 50%. This group has no realistic chance of entering college, amassing sufficient capital (legally), starting a business, or getting into the union-protected high wage skilled job market. Nothing is done to reduce or eliminate the amount of crime committed by poverty stricken Americans. Furthermore, black Americans are disproportionately poor and reside in inner city areas.|