# Sir Isaac Newton Homework

**Isaac Newton For Kids**

Let’s learn some super facts about the famous Isaac Newton! At the end, check out our activity section where you can download or print our question sheet to test what you have learned.

Isaac Newton is still one of the most famous scientists of all time, as he discovered some amazing things. Take a read to find out all about this legend!

**The Young Isaac Newton**

Isaac Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, England on 4 January 1643. But in those days the calendar was different to what it is now, and if you used that calendar then he was actually born on Christmas Day!

He was apparently born too early, and because of this his Mum said he could fit into a quart size mug, which is about the size of a liter. That’s pretty tiny don’t you think? His Dad was a rich farmer but he sadly died before this very clever young man was born.

His Grandparents looked after him as his Mom married someone else and moved away to go and live with him. He didn’t like his step-dad at all, and was very cross with his Mom for leaving him. Not very surprising!

He loved to draw and paint and he would cover the walls and ceilings of his bedroom with all sorts of colors. Would your parents like you drawing all over your walls and ceiling? Don’t think so!

Did you know that Isaac Newton was actually expelled from school when he was about 12 years old? Well he was, and it was because he fought with one of the other students!

Just after that his step-dad died and his Mom took him out of school and wanted him to be a farmer. But it wasn’t meant to be as he hated farming. So, back he went to school again and landed up being the top student! No wonder he was such a brilliant man. He absolutely loved sundials and building model windmills. Now that’s cool.

**University Life**

When he was 19 off he went to Cambridge University in England. He couldn’t afford to pay for it, so he worked part-time as a valet, which was like being a servant that looked after gentlemen’s clothes and what they looked like. Wow, he certainly wanted an education. But then lucky for him, the university saw how talented he was and they have him a scholarship, no more valeting for him then.

When he was at university, this is when he became really keen on maths. He was so brilliant that he became a Professor of Mathematics when he was just 27 years old. That’s unbelievable to be a professor at that age! He also became a Fellow of the Royal Society, which was a group of scientists in England. Clearly everyone could see how clever he really was.

It got better still…a bit later on he was asked to represent Cambridge University as a member of parliament. This is really funny. Apparently no one seems to know what he did there other than moan about the cold passages throughout the buildings. Clearly he wasn’t all that keen on this job he was asked to do. Apparently he was a bit of a grump!

While he worked here, for a full year, he only ever said one sentence apparently! He asked an usher to close an open, drafty window!

**Newton The Amazing Discoverer**

He definitely liked to work on his own, and Cambridge University had to close because of the Great Plague. As soon as this happened, off he went home on his merry way and did lots and lots of thinking! This is where some of his most important work was done!

He discovered loads of things …here are some of the most important ones

- He discovered what is called the Law of Universal Gravitation. Apparently this discovery came about when he saw an apple falling from a tree, and this led him to the answer that, “Whatever goes up must come down.” Eventually of course, this discovery allowed people to understand how the planets and the sun moved around. Guess what happened to the tree? Well the King’s School in Grantham, Lincolnshire, apparently bought it and moved it to its own garden. Wonder how much they paid for it!
- He also discovered the Laws of Motion on which mechanics is based. The first law of motion he described as, “An object in motion wants to stay in motion, and an object at rest wants to stay at rest.”

- Have you heard of Calculus, well then this is the man who invented it. It is a part of maths that works out changes in the rate of change, like the speeding up or slowing down of a moving vehicle which is used in engineering and science.
- He invented the Reflecting Telescope where he used mirrors to reflect light and create images from that. They still use this in major telescopes today.

**Some other Interesting Facts**

- The Bible was Sir Isaac’s greatest passion! Did you know that he wrote way more about religion that he did about science and mathematics? Wow! He was the one who calculated the date of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ as April 3, A.D. 33 and the earliest date of the Apocalypse as 2060 A.D.

- In 1705 he was lucky enough to be made a Knight by Queen Anne.
- He died not too long after that on 20 March 1727. He died in his sleep, nice and peacefully and was buried in Westminster Abbey in England.
- Apparently after he died, they found mercury in his hair from all those crazy experiments he used to do. Loads of people thought that this was why he acted a bit crazy in his later life, as mercury is poisonous. That could explain it!

- How is this for weird? One of Isaac Newton’s teeth was sold in 1816 for £730. A posh and wealthy man bought it and had it set in a ring! Hmmm, that would be a bit weird having a ring with a tooth in it!

Sir Isaac Newton is still thought of as one of the most amazing and brilliant scientists of all time, and he will probably always be known as a brilliant mind!

**Activity Time – Test Your Knowledge!**

**Now test your knowledge of this subject using our quiz sheet for use in class or at home! **** Questions about Isaac Newton (all answers found on this page)**

Isaac Newton is perhaps the greatest physicist who has ever lived. He and Albert Einstein are almost equally matched contenders for this title.

Each of these great scientists produced dramatic and startling transformations in the physical laws we believe our universe obeys, changing the way we understand and relate to the world around us.

### Early Life and Education

Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643 in the tiny village of Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England.

His father, whose name was also Isaac Newton, was a farmer who died before Isaac Junior was born. Although comfortable financially, his father could not read or write.

His mother, Hannah Ayscough, married a churchman when Newton was three years old.

Newton disliked his mother’s new husband and did not join their household, living instead with his mother’s mother, Margery Ayscough.

His resentment of his mother and stepfather’s new life did not subside with time; as a teenager he threatened to burn their house down!

Beginning at age 12, Newton attended The King’s School, Grantham, where he was taught the classics, but no science or mathematics. When he was 17, his mother stopped his schooling so that he could become a farmer. Fortunately for the future of science Newton found he had neither aptitude nor liking for farming; his mother allowed him to return to school, where he finished as top student.

### Servant and Undergraduate

In June 1661, age 18, Newton began studying for a law degree at Cambridge University’s Trinity College, earning money as a personal servant to wealthier students.

By the time he was a third-year student he was spending much of his time studying mathematics and natural philosophy (today we call it physics). He was also fascinated by alchemy, which is now categorized as a pseudoscience.

His natural philosophy lecturers based their courses on Aristotle’s incorrect ideas from Ancient Greek times. This was despite the fact that 25 years earlier, in 1638, Galileo Galilei had established a new scientific basis for the physics of motion with his masterpiece *Two New Sciences*.

Newton began to disregard the material taught at his college, preferring to study the recent (and more scientifically correct) works of Galileo, Boyle, Descartes, and Kepler. He wrote:

**my greatest friend is truth**.”

Reading the works of these great scientists, Newton grew more ambitious about making his own discoveries. While still working part-time as a servant, he wrote a note to himself. In it he posed questions not yet been answered by science. These included questions about gravity, the nature of light, the nature of color and vision, and atoms.

After three years at Cambridge, he won a four-year scholarship. This allowed him to give up working as a servant and devote his time fully to academic studies.

### A Mind on Fire

In 1665, at age 22, a year after beginning his four-year scholarship, Newton made his first major discovery: this was in mathematics, where he discovered the generalized binomial theorem. He was awarded his B.A. degree in the same year.

By now his mind was ablaze with new ideas. He began making significant progress in three distinct fields – he would make some of his most profound discoveries in these fields:

- calculus, the mathematics of change, which is vital to our understanding of the world around us
- gravity
- optics and the behavior of light

He did much of his work on these topics back home at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth after the Great Plague forced Cambridge colleges to close.

### Fellow and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics

At age 24, in 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge, where events moved quickly.

First he was elected as a fellow of Trinity College.

A year later, in 1668, he was awarded an M.A. degree.

A year after that, the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Trinity College, Isaac Barrow, resigned and Newton was appointed as his replacement; he was just 26 years old. Barrow, who had recommended Newton to succeed him, said of him:

## Isaac Newton’s Scientific Achievements and Discoveries

### Achievements in Brief

Isaac Newton, who was largely self-taught in mathematics and physics:

- generalized the binomial theorem
- showed that sunlight is made up of all of the colors of the rainbow. He used one glass prism to split a beam of sunlight into its separate colors, then another prism to recombine the rainbow colors to make a beam of white light again.
- built the world’s first working reflecting telescope.
- discovered/invented calculus, the mathematics of change, without which we could not understand the behavior of objects as tiny as electrons or as large as galaxies.
- wrote the
*Principia*, one of the most important scientific books ever written; in it he used mathematics to explain gravity and motion. (*Principia*is pronounced with a hard c.) - discovered the law of universal gravitation, proving that the force holding the moon in orbit around the earth is the same force that causes an apple to fall from a tree.
- formulated his three laws of motion –
*Newton’s Laws*– which lie at the heart of the science of movement. - showed that Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are special cases of Newton’s universal gravitation.
- proved that all objects moving through space under the influence of gravity must follow a path shaped in the form of one of the conic sections, such as a circle, an ellipse, or a parabola, hence explaining the paths all planets and comets follow.
- showed that the tides are caused by gravitational interactions between the earth, the moon, and the sun.
- predicted, correctly, that the earth is not perfectly spherical but is squashed into an oblate spheroid, larger around the equator than around the poles.
- Used mathematics to model the movement of fluids – from which the concept of a
*Newtonian fluid*comes. - devised
*Newton’s Method*for finding the roots of mathematical functions.

### Some Details about Newton’s Greatest Discoveries

Newton revealed his laws of motion and gravitation in his book the *Principia*. Just as few people at first could understand Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, few people understood the *Principia*. When Newton walked past them one day, one student remarked to another:

“There goes a man who has written a book that neither he nor anybody else understands.”

Newton’s ideas were spread by the small number of people who understood the *Principia*, and who were able to develop and convey its message in more accessible ways: people including Leonhard Euler, Joseph Louis Lagrange, Pierre Simon de Laplace, Willem Jacob ‘s Gravesande, William Whiston, John Theophilus Desaguliers, and David Gregory.

### Calculus

Newton was the first person to fully develop calculus. Calculus is the mathematics of change. Modern physics and physical chemistry would be impossible without it. Other academic disciplines such as biology and economics also rely heavily on calculus for analysis.

In his development of calculus Newton was influenced by Pierre de Fermat, who had shown specific examples in which calculus-like methods could be used. Newton was able to build on Fermat’s work and generalize calculus. Newton wrote that he had been guided by:

From Newton’s fertile mind came the ideas that we now call differential calculus, integral calculus, and differential equations.

Soon after Newton generalized calculus, Gottfried Leibniz achieved the same result. Today, most mathematicians give equal credit to Newton and Leibniz for calculus’s discovery.

### Universal Gravitation and the Apple

Newton’s famous apple, which he saw falling from a tree in the garden of his family home in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, is not a myth.

He told people that seeing the apple’s fall made him wonder why it fell in a straight line towards the center of our planet rather than moving upwards or sideways.

Ultimately, he realized and proved that the force behind the apple’s fall also causes the moon to orbit the earth; and comets, the earth and other planets to orbit the sun. The force is felt throughout the universe, so Newton called it *Universal Gravitation*. In a nutshell, it says that mass attracts mass.

Newton discovered the equation that allows us to calculate the force of gravity between two objects.

Most people don’t like equations much: **E = mc ^{2}** is as much as they can stand, but, for the record, here’s Newton’s equation:

Newton’s equation says that you can calculate the gravitational force attracting one object to another by multiplying the masses of the two objects by the gravitational constant and dividing by the square of the distance between the objects’ centers.

Dividing by distance squared means Newton’s Law is an *inverse-square law*.

Newton proved mathematically that any object moving in space affected by an inverse-square law will follow a path in the shape of one of the conic sections, the shapes which fascinated Archimedes and other Ancient Greek mathematicians.

For example, planets follow elliptical paths; while comets follow elliptical, or parabolic or hyperbolic paths.

And that’s it! Newton showed *everyone* how, if they wished to, they could calculate the force of gravity between things such as people, planets, stars, and apples.

### Newton’s Laws of Motion

Third Law: The rocket flies because of the upward thrust it gets as a reaction to the high speed gas particles pushing downward from its engines.

**First law:** Objects remain stationary or move at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force. This law was actually first stated by Galileo, whose influence Newton mentions several times in the *Principia*.

**Second law:** The force F on an object is equal to its mass m multiplied by its acceleration: F = ma.

**Third law:** When one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a force equal in size and opposite in direction on the first object.

With Newton’s calculus, universal gravitation, and laws of motion, you have enough knowledge at your fingertips to plot a course for a spaceship to any planet in our solar system or even another solar system!

And Isaac Newton figured it all out about 300 years before we actually *did* send a spaceship to the planets.

**A Word of Caution**

Newton’s laws become increasingly inaccurate when speeds reach substantial fractions of the speed of light, or when the force of gravity is very large. Einstein’s equations are then required to produce reliable results.

### Optics and Light

Newton was not just clever with his mind. He was also skilled in experimental methods and working with equipment.

He built the world’s first reflecting telescope. This telescope focuses light from a curved mirror. Reflecting telescopes have several advantages over earlier telescopes including:

- they are cheaper to make
- they are easier to make in large sizes, gathering more light, allowing higher magnification
- they do not suffer from a focusing issue associated with lenses called chromatic aberration.

Newton also used glass prisms to establish that white light is not a simple phenomenon. He proved that it is made up of all of the colors of the rainbow, which could recombine to form white light again.

Newton’s crucial 1672 experiment with two prisms. The result absolutely demolished competing theories, such as the proposal that glass added the colors to sunlight.

### Alchemy, Feuds, Religion, and Planets Orbiting Distant Stars

Although he is one of the greatest scientists in history, Newton’s laboratory papers show he probably devoted more of his time to alchemy than to anything we would recognize as science.

*The Alchemist* by Joseph Wright depicts Hennig Brand’s discovery of phosphorus. Brand was actually trying to discover the Philosophers’ Stone. Newton seems to have put more of his hours into alchemy than mathematics and physics.

Not surprisingly, Newton never found the Philosophers’ Stone. Given his towering contributions to real science, all we can do is wonder what else he might have achieved if he had not been such a passionate alchemist.

Despite his brilliance, Newton was a very insecure man: most historians trace this back to his childhood family difficulties.

Newton published very little work until his later years, because in his early years as a scientist, Robert Hooke disagreed strongly with a scientific paper Newton published. Newton took criticism of his work in a very personal way and developed a lifelong loathing for Hooke.

His lack of published work also caused a huge issue when Gottfried Leibniz starting publishing his own version of calculus. Newton was already a master of this branch of mathematics, but had published very little of it. Again Newton’s insecurity got the better of him, and he angrily accused Leibniz of stealing his work. The pros and cons of each man’s case have long been debated by historians. Most mathematicians regard Newton and Leibniz as equally responsible for the development of calculus.

Newton was a very religious man with somewhat unorthodox Protestant Christian views. He spent a great deal of time and wrote a large body of private works concerned with theology and his interpretation of the Bible.

His scientific work had revealed a universe that obeyed logical mathematical laws. He had also discovered that starlight and sunlight are the same, and he speculated that stars could have their own systems of planets orbiting them. He believed such a system could only have been made by God.

### Moving On

In 1696, Newton was appointed as a Warden of the Royal Mint. In 1700, he became Master of the Mint, leaving Cambridge for London, and more or less ending his scientific discovery work. He took his new role very seriously, going out into London’s taverns in disguise gathering evidence against counterfeiters.

In 1703, he was elected President of the Royal Society.

In 1705, he was knighted, becoming Sir Isaac Newton.

### The End

Isaac Newton died on March 31, 1727, age 84. He had never married and had no children.

He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London.

**Author of this page: The Doc**

Images of Newton and Barrow enhanced and colorized by this website.

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