Enzyme Lab Report Term Paper

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The Effect of pH Concentration on Carbon Dioxide Production by Yeast Fermentation Introduction: Organisms can undergo two different metabolic processes that include cellular respiration and fermentation, each of which break down bonds in sugar and convert such bonds into energy. Fermentation is an important metabolic process that occurs in organisms when there is a lack of oxygen (Morton). Yeast is a type of unicellular organism that can undergo both cellular respiration as well as alcoholic fermentation (Lin 1). However, yeast is commonly used for alcoholic fermentation. During alcoholic fermentation, glycolysis takes place, which converts the glucose consumed by the organism to make pyruvic acid, or pyruvate, with the help of ten different enzymes (Morton). After pyruvate is made, two more enzymes help to convert the pyruvate into ethanol and carbon dioxide (Morton). Unlike processes that need one type of enzyme to occur, yeast needs about twelve different enzymes, including enzymes such as zymase and sucrase, in order for alcoholic fermentation to occur (“Enzymes of Yeast”). The organism of yeast plays an important role in the rising of dough during baking as well as the fermentation of wine (Arroyo-Lopez 120). The course of yeast fermentation can be affected by different environmental factors such as temperature, pH concentration, and sugar concentration (Arroyo-Lopez 120). All three factors are important for the survival of yeast, which will still be able to undergo alcoholic fermentation. Research has been done to determine the optimum pH value at which the enzymes involved in yeast fermentation are most active. The highest rate of yeast fermentation, recorded by the amount of ethanol produced, is attained at pH 5.0 (Lin 1). An experiment designed by Yan Lin, Wei Zhang, Chinjie Li, Kei Sakakibara, Shuzo Tanaka, and Hainan Kong included the testing of the effect of pH concentration on ethanol fermentation in yeast. The designers of the experiment

Enzyme Lab Report Essay

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Section 1. Introduction
“Enzymes are proteins that have catalytic functions” [1], “that speed up or slow down reactions”[2], “indispensable to maintenance and activity of life”[1]. They are each very specific, and will only work when a particular substrate fits in their active site. An active site is “a region on the surface of an enzyme where the substrate binds, and where the reaction occurs”[2]. “Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar in milk. It is produced by the cells lining of the small intestine. Most people are born producing it, but often make less of it as they age, which causes lactose intolerance the symptoms for this include nausea, bloating, and diarrhea to name a few. This enzyme is produced…show more content…

Section 1. Introduction
“Enzymes are proteins that have catalytic functions” [1], “that speed up or slow down reactions”[2], “indispensable to maintenance and activity of life”[1]. They are each very specific, and will only work when a particular substrate fits in their active site. An active site is “a region on the surface of an enzyme where the substrate binds, and where the reaction occurs”[2]. “Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, the sugar in milk. It is produced by the cells lining of the small intestine. Most people are born producing it, but often make less of it as they age, which causes lactose intolerance the symptoms for this include nausea, bloating, and diarrhea to name a few. This enzyme is produced commercially as a dietary supplement to help them digest the lactose”[3]. The purpose for this experiment is to study the enzyme specificity and if its function is under the influence of environmental factors such as pH and temperature. To test the specificity we used lactase in several test tubes in the presence of lactose and sucrose to figure out which one would result with the highest concentration of glucose, which is one of the lactase products. The test tubes each contained, milk (lactose), or sucrose, and either lactase enzyme or water, which is used as a negative control. We hypothesized that the enzyme is specific, and will break down lactose, but not sucrose. We then found out our hypothesis is accurate because it proved that

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