Human Resource Management in the 21st Century: Challenges for the Future
Human Resources Management in every firm is the toughest duty of a manager as humans are contradicts with their attitudes, aspirations, assumptions, and psychology. Success of the firm depends on the capabilities of its members. An organization faces most challenges, frustrations, and opportunities which are directly related to the people.
In the present antagonistic world, the staff in managerial level require ample of strategic and conceptual skills. HR managers must have specific competence to preclude developments in technology and make their subordinate staff suitable for the changes in technology that likely to take place. This task can be successful only when the Human Resources Management is fully capable to deal with them. HR managers are protector and counselor of the employees and directly authoritative for potency of the firm.
HR managers are expected to contribute harmony in the work place; this promotes more provocative work atmosphere. Such firms are much targeted by both the job seekers and hunters in their new job searches. Professionalism with integrity and capability make the job holders of human resources to flourish in the challenging environment. Empowerment of employees in an organization enables to make decisions by their own and strive in the managerial decision making as well.
The process of empowerment of employees include requisite training relevant to their job, sharing of common goals and vision with the management, real commitment to achieve the goals, sharing of profits and benefits between the employees and management, and management’s trust on the employees at lower level. Reshaping of Human Resources changes the entire performance of a firm. HR need to focus on acquisition of skills on international qualities of economic, political, and social development. The collaboration between the universities, the public sector, and public training institutions is required to be promoted by the HR to conduct various effective training programs on planning.
In this modern world, every organization carries out the business in various countries. Such multinational companies adopt different strategies to contest in the global market through the people. In this diversity of human resources management, business firms adopt the practices and policies according to the environment and culture. The ecological and ethical challenges, political and economic instabilities, and globalization are other issues which also faced by today business firms.
The 21st century depends on the human resources to face the challenges of industrialization and globalization of business. Despite of having the capital and technology by the firms, the upcoming challenges could be met out through the Human Resources only by the way of motivation and encouragement.
Improvisation and clear understanding of the current management trends and practices:
To begin with, one of the most important factors that affect the performance of an organization is the Human resource. The development of organizational commitment , so as to improve the productivity and performance needs effective human resource management practices .Organization it is growing, developing, maturation and decline stage needs Hr managers with different traits and thus to improve work efficiency and enable the organization to exists and grow better as well as to retain the talent resources .
The management of human resources has emerged as a critical factor in creating and maintaining the competitive edge of the business .The Hr manager should be a business partner as well as the facilitator who plays the role of the strategist in the organization.
At first , the core business of human resource managers is recruitment , allocating resources to the vacancy position , Training personal ,managing the profile of the resource , contracts signing process and other transactional process .Later , sustaining the talent resources is the greatest problem faced by the Hr department . so the role of Hr managers faced a profound change as the enterprise grows along with the changing society .
At present , many organisations Human resource base is week. The organizational structure is not clear, the hierarchy is not well defined and is changing as the organization grows .Job analysis by the Hr manages is not clear , work authority, job specifications and qualifications required are also vague .so the Hr manages traits need to be improved as the society is rapidly changing This study aims to provide the updated views on the competency needed for future Hr managers and looking in the new management practices.
International HRM practices :
It could be argued that the practice and study of IHrm has evolved alongside with the globalization . The term `International HRM ` is often given to the Hr managers in Mutli national corporations (MNCs).
Hr managers are in a position to understand the cultural diversity and integration . as the Hr practices now developed from personal management to strategic and coherent approach . The need to understand and study the concept of cultural diversity.
Establishing a clear responsibility system among the work forces
and effective empowerment so as to avoid disputes due to cultural diversity .
People centered management:
Human resource management is the “people-oriented”, which will be developed, utilized and managed as an important resource so that employees can actively and creatively work.
The people side of managing is important too. People are central to implementing the company’s management functions at all stages . the other management functions–planning, organizing, leading and controlling–are the vehicles through the company breathes life into its strategy.
The Strategic Human Resource Management practices (SHRM):
When an enterprise develops to a certain degree, the transition from enterpriser-oriented HR management to professional manager-oriented SHRM is necessary.
Strategic human resource is the source that creates corporate core competitiveness. Based on corporate strategies, SHRM helps analyze present situations of human resources and formulate reasonable HR policies that meet corporate needs according to internal and external environment. SHRM also benefits the establishment of an efficient HR management system, as well as the recognition, development and realization of core capacity required for corporate strategies.
The Strategic process of HR involves the strategy formulation,
implementation, and evaluation and it has stressed on some of the
critical external and internal factors involved in this process.
Strategic planning involves making decisions about where the organization wants to be tomorrow. Clearly defining the problem, therefore, is critical at this stage.
Strategic planning usually starts with identifying the driving forces in a firm’s environment. These forces can be economic, demographic, technological, and competitive.
In the next stage, the strategy itself is generally formulated. .
In stage three, strategic planning cycles back to the overall planning process: planners turn to creating plans for actually implementing the strategy. Specific strategy-related goals are formulated and assigned to the company’s managers, who in turn are responsible for crafting plans to ensure those goals are reached.
Contrast between Traditional and Strategic HRM :
Due to the tremendous differences between traditional perspectives and SHRM, the organizations are facing the transitions and tremendous changes .
The traditional HRM focuses mainly on the basic activities and is transactional in nature. SHRM requires a different mindset and it focuses on transformations as well as transactions .it focuses on the change management and preparing the work force to face the change and to avoid fear and resistance to change .
Strategic Human Resource Management Practice is to enhance staff efficiency to carry out job responsibilities, and motivate employees to the achieve the business goal and create Opportunity.
Integration of management functions :
In the process of Hr management , the organization should consider strategy , which is based on the organizational goals .determining the key factors includes recognition of high performance employees and core competitiveness.
Value chain management refers to integration of the human resource management of each function such as planning, organization, staffing ,controlling and budgeting .mutual coordination between the functions forms a sound human resource management value chain system and maximizes the function of organizational human resource policies and systems .In the traditional HRM this is the weakest point , so it cannot effectively serve the enterprises .adapting the integration of functions in the modern era provides understanding of job analysis in variouse management functions and also the foundation of human resource value chain system and provide maximum efficiency.
HRM has to focus on overall development of human resources, forecasting and planning , making human resource development strategy on the basis of long term goals of the organization.
Humanized and systematic management:
HRM is considered as a system that involves scientific assessments and evaluation practices , uses new technologies and methodologies in all managerial functions .it considers the human emotions ,self-esteem, ownership, gives importance to individual strengths so as the adopt employees with the organization and emphasizes more on family based management concepts.
Adopting dynamic management in dynamic organization:
HR management under new emerging ideas is the dynamic management, emphasizing the overall development and system operation.
Clarity of thoughts is required for the Hr managers. Most Hr managers often gets confused on what role they like to play in the organization .Clarity of role is not clear , neither from themselves or from the organization or from the customers(employees) .because of this ,HR managers fail to take decisions and corrective actions. So adapting to the dynamic management is highly recommended.
This management form not only gives clear cut idea on employees’ work, but also design the career for them according to organizational goals and personal situation and giving full scope to the talents.
Human resource management has moved from traditional administrative and operational roles and extended to strategic role .HRM not only involves the employee’s career development, considers the overall staff and enterprise development and provides follow-up support.
More focus on the future- Future management :
The future management model is all about removing roadblocks from the paths of the employees in order to help them success .this extends beyond managing the people by empowering and engaging them in all functions. The traditional HRM follows the idea of management based on the fear to change and relies mostly on fear and control.
The truth is that the HRM is a challenge rather than a profession. Adopting modern practices and trends in the current era so as to cope with the changing society in order to have effective utilization and sustaining the talent resources.